2030: The Ends of Worlds

Samantha Suppiah
20 min readNov 7, 2021
Where Kali resides in Kali Yuga, Table for Change (Durga-Kali: Copyright Pascal Yung 2011)

The Hindu Maha Puranas describe the present as the mere beginning of the worst of the four world ages: the age of conflict and sin, marked by strife, discord, quarrel or contention. The Kali Yuga lasts 432,000 years, and we’re 5,122 years in.

It’s entirely plausible that the world began to end 5,122 years ago.

The contemporary study of cultural evolution refers to terms often brought over from biological evolution, terms such as

niche selections (the point where a new behavioural or cultural trait emerges),

adaptive radiation (the growth of popularity of this trait), and

maximum complexity (new ways to exhibit this particular behaviour or culture become rarer and rarer).

My teardrop illustration of cultural evolution

I refer above to one particular niche selection which I see as one of the teardrops of cultural evolution leading to a concept we now know as modern civilisation… which in itself is a combination of two murky and wicked concepts:


Consider that there is a point where modernity evolves into Modernity with a capital M, refering to institutionalised Western modernity, conventionally described as emerging and establishing itself during the European Renaissance:

Modernity is a paradigm shift in human thinking and human relations that ushered in the advent of modern science, technology, nation states, money economy, capitalism, and industrialism in Western societies. Fundamentally, modernity is our post-traditional way of being; it is the post-Medieval consciousness that has left no human institutions untouched in the Western societies. The philosophy of René Descartes (1596–1650) — which created a dualism between mind and body, and had a purely mechanistic view of the universe — was a zygote of this new consciousness.

modernity however, with a little m, sits much deeper in our evolutionary psyche than a mere cultural outlook imposed by a dominant global hegemony.

It is coincidentally pointed to in one aspect of Modernity:

“a state of being whereby life is…



Samantha Suppiah

Southeast Asian trickster. Design strategist for decolonial sustainability & regeneration. www.possiblefutures.earth/samantha